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at 1524 (citing Moore v. Sw. Bell Tel. Co., 593 F.2d 607, 608 (5th Cir. 1979) (per )).This is made all the more complicated by the multiple meanings of “practical significance.” Some courts use it to analyze the magnitude of a disparity, which I argue is inappropriate at the prima facie stage.

With respect to the second guideline interpreting ES appropriately, it is essential to consider the outcomes being compared. When measures are comparable across studies, the mean effect and the distribution of effects reported in meta-analyses of previous research can be used.Guidelines for Calculating, Reporting, and Interpreting ESs

The Edwards-Nunnally method of calculating clinical significance is a more stringent alternative to the Jacobson-Truax method. Reliability scores are used to bring the pre-test scores closer to the mean, and then a confidence interval is developed for this adjusted pre-test score. Confidence intervals are used when calculating the change from pre-test to post-test, so greater actual change in scores is necessary to show clinical significance, compared to the Jacobson-Truax method.In medicine and psychology,

HLM involves growth curve analysis instead of pre-test post-test comparisons, so three data points needed from each patient, instead of only two data points (pre-test and post-test). A computer program, such as Hierarchical Linear and Nonlinear Modeling is used to calculate change estimates for each participant. HLM also allows for analysis of growth curve models of dyads and groups.