For instance, after the success of Shannon’s master’s thesis, Bush urged Shannon to write his PhD dissertation on theoretical genetics, a subject Shannon had to pick up from scratch and that was far afield from the engineering and mathematics he had spent years working on. That Bush pushed Shannon to do so testifies to his trust in his protege’s ability rise to the challenge that Shannon agrees testifies to his willingness to stretch himself.
Célia Sapart of Utrecht University in the Netherlands led 15 scientists from Europe and the United States in a study that charted the chemical signature of methane in ice samples spanning 2,100 years. The gas methane naturally occurs in the atmosphere in low concentrations. But it’s now considered a greenhouse gas implicated in climate change because of emissions from landfills, large-scale cattle natural gas pipeline leaks and land-clearing fires.
Antibacterials are specifically designed to treat bacterial infections. Billions of microscopic bacteria normally live on the skin, in the gut, and in our mouths and throats. Most are harmless to humans, but some are pathogenic (disease producing) and can cause infections in the ears, throat, skin, and other parts of the body. In the pre-antibiotic era of the early 1900s, people had no medicines against these common germs and as result, human suffering was enormous. Even though the body’s disease-fighting