The modern bilingual education era in the United States had its origins in the Cuban Revolution. Cubans fleeing their native island after 1959 were overwhelmingly from the professional and business classes and were intent on succeeding in their new English-speaking home while maintaining their language and culture. The bilingual programs they established in Florida were and remain among the most successful in the country. These expatriates did nothing novel, much less radical. In keeping with the American b
The culmination of this political movement on the educational front came with the passage and 1968 signing into law of the Bilingual Education Act (also known as Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, or ESEA), which Kloss calls “the first major measure adopted at the federal level in order to promote bilingualism.” On the one hand, this was indeed precedent setting. But on the other, the act was an extension of a legacy reaching back to the 17th-century Polish settlers in Virginia men
Dorothea Dix, the most famous and successful psychiatric reformer in American history, picked up where Dwight had left off. In 1841, with the American asylum-building movement under way, Dix began a campaign that would focus national attention on the sad plight the mentally ill in jails and prisons and would be directly responsible for the opening of at least 30 more state psychiatric hospitals.
20. Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., (New York: W. W. Norton, 1992).Photographs and illustrations, as well as text, cannot be used without permission the AFT
Support for bilingual education is evident at the state level as well. Nine states have approved the “Seal of Biliteracy,” which will appear on the high school graduation diplomas of students who have studied and attained proficiency in two languages. Hawaii’s Department of Education established the Hawaiian Language Immersion Program in 1987, and Montana’s governor recently signed into law a bill that will fund Native American language immersion programs in public schools.Many people, however, rega