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Since the late nineteenth century some feminists

Grace Douglass and daughter Sarah, along with white feminist Lucretia Mott, were often able to persuade white organizations to include a black abolitionist perspective. Thus, as historian points out, they became not just well-meaning but an “aggressive, persistent force for change in the Philadelphia area.”This is part of a series

In 1781 Freeman, with the assistance of Sedgwick, initiated the case that set a precedent for the abolition of slavery in Massachusetts. According to the Massachusetts Judicial Review, the 1781 Berkshire county case of , often referred to as the “Mum Bett” or “Elizabeth Freeman” case, was unique because it occurred less than one year after the adoption of the Massachusetts and because, in contrast to prior freedom suits, there was no claim that John Ashley, the slave owner, had violated a specific

Ockman, Carol. . New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.In addition discussing gender in relation to the nineteenth-century ideology of separate spheres, the theme of the nude is another rich thread that concerns both masculinity and femininity.

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