Most practical problems, particularly problems involving long-term planning, are characterized by the lack of strict constraints on many variables or indexes. Such cases are problems vector optimization. If each alternative is characterized by two indexes with variable values, for example, volume of output produced and expenditures, it must be determined whether it is better to spend a specific amount and produce a certain quantity of output or to increase the volume of production by increasing expenditures
refers to an individual focusing attention on fewer, more important goals e.g. rescaling/reconstructing goals. involves engaging in goal-directed actions and means examples include investing time and energy into the acquisition, refinement and application of goal-relevant means, seizing the right moment, persistence, acquisition of new skills/resources, and practice of skills.
In an overview by Collins and Smyer (2006), they describe the ecology of disability and long-term care as being consistent with the SOC model in that the ecological approach removes the full burden of responsibility of successful aging from the individual while illuminating the tools that individuals and their social structures can use to manage and optimize opportunities for successful aging (Collins & Smyer, 2006). They reviewed the individual aspects and differences for older Americans aged 50 years and