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During the Civil Rights Movement, the NAACP help to integrate public

, group of African American high-school students who challenged racial segregation in the public schools of Little Rock, Arkansas. The group—consisting of Melba Pattillo, Ernest Green, Elizabeth Eckford, Minnijean Brown, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls, Jefferson Thomas, Gloria Ray, and Thelma Mothershed—became the centre of the struggle to desegregate Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Due to his high-profile position with the NAACP, Evers became a target for those who opposed racial equality and desegregation. He and his family were subjected to numerous threats and violent actions over the years, including a firebombing of their house in May 1963. At 12:40 a.m. on June 12, 1963, Evers was shot in the back in the driveway of his home in Jackson. He died less than a hour later at a nearby hospital.Sign up to receive updates from BIO and A+E Networks.

One of the most successful trial lawyers in the state, Ross Barnett rode the segregation issue into office in 1960. Barnett was a demagogue of the first order. He used the microphone and the TV camera to appeal to the resentments and fears of white Mississippi. In the Ole’ Miss uproar, Barnett employed the dog-eared theory of “interposition,” the antebellum notion a sovereign state could block the federal government from enforcing a noxious law on its people. Few legal authorities inside o

[ The U. S. Supreme Court eventually rendered a separate opinion on v. because the 14th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution was not applicable in the District of Columbia.] The Supreme Court denied citizenship to Black people, setting the stage for their treatment as second class citizens.

The following year, a local chapter secretary of the NAACP refused to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Ala. actions set the stage for the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The boycott a springboard for the efforts of organizations such as the NAACP, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)and Urban League to develop a national civil rights movement.

At the end of the school year, Ernest Green became the first African American to graduate from Central High School. King attended his graduation ceremony. In honor of their momentous contributions to history and the integration of the Arkansas public school system, in 1958 the Little Rock Nine were honored with the NAACP’s highest honor, the Spingarn Medal.

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