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False-positive and false-negative results can also occur because of bias (observer,

Where a true positive is a positive correlation pair and a false-positive is a positive Pap test with a negative biopsy. Notice that the PPV is based on the original interpretation for both the Pap test and the biopsy, and not the review interpretation of these specimens. The calculation assumes the biopsy is the gold standard of “truth.” The PPV emphasizes the screening role of a Pap test. It is intended to identify women who require triage to colposcopy to confirm a potential abnormality through visua

The sensitivity of cytology is less than ideal for invasive cancers as well, and estimates range widely (16% to 82%). Many women with cervical cancer have a history of one more negative smears. The relative contributions of sampling and laboratory error vary from one study to another and likely depend on how carefully retrospective rescreening is performed.

Other more complicated biases can develop as well when data elements associated with risk and those associated with referral to revascularization become disparate. For example, if post-MPS referral to revascularization is based on one variable (e.g., ischemia) but not on a second (e.g., scar), a referral bias will result in underestimation of risk associated with the first variable (blunted increase in risk as a function of ischemia) but no such finding with respect to the second variable (appropriate incre

The false-consensus effect can be contrasted with , an error in which people privately disapprove but publicly support what seems to be the majority view (regarding a norm or belief), when the majority in fact shares their (private) disapproval. While the false-consensus effect leads people wrongly believe that the majority agrees with them (when the majority, in fact, openly disagrees with them), the pluralistic ignorance effect leads people to wrongly believe that they disagree with the majority (when the

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